Bert-Jan Baars

Toxicology, the science of poisons, studies the interaction between chemical substances and living organisms. Since exposure is necessary for any toxic effect to be expressed, attention is first paid to absorption, distribution and excretion of foreign compounds (xenobiotics), including the toxicokinetic principles of these processes. Secondly, because xenobiotics, once in the organism, are difficult to excrete, the key biotransformation reactions of xenobiotics are outlined. Thirdly, some important toxic responses of the body are summarized. Finally, the basis of risk assessment, together with health-based exposure levels and product standards are introduced.

Key words: biotransformation, intake standards, product standards, risk assessment, toxicity, toxicokinetics, toxicology

Land Contamination & Reclamation, 14 (4), 775-791

DOI 10.2462/09670513.696

© 2007 EPP Publications Ltd

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Article code 696